Publications - research papers and reports

Atmospheric Environment

Volume 223, 15 February 2020, 117301

Real-world emissions from non-road mobile machinery in London

The 2016 London atmospheric emissions inventory estimates that, the construction sector contributes 34% of the total PM10 and 7% of the total NOX – the largest and 5th largest sources, respectively. Recent on-road light duty diesel vehicle emission tests have shown significant differences between real-world NOX emissions compared with results from laboratory based regulatory tests.

The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the ‘real-world’ tail-pipe NOX, CO2, and particle emissions, for 30 of the most commonly used construction machines in London under normal working conditions.


  • NOX, CO2, and particulate exhaust emissions from a total of 30 construction machines, including 9 different types.
  • PEMS measurements were carried out on active construction sites in London, giving an indication of ‘real-world’ emissions.
  • Measured NOX emissions indicate that approximately 75% of the machines tested conform to within a factor of 2.1.




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